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Wednesday, March 28, 2012

The Monster Called Semangko Fault

People who living in Banda Aceh, many of the proud after their homes were destroyed by an earthquake measuring 9.3 on the Richter scale followed by a tsunami in 2004, completely rebuilt with the help of donor agencies. According to them who built that the new houses are an earthquake resistant.
Banda Aceh on December, 26, 2004 - Tsunami from M9.0 Indian Ocean Earthquake. (Picture from: http://ioc3.unesco.org/)
Some of the anticipated disaster socialization carried out by local governments and is always followed by the community. The lessons learned is, if an earthquake happens and sirens blaring, they must quickly move away from the beach and looking for a high building. The goal is to escape from the tsunami.

Most communities do not understand that there is another threat that lurks in which they live, ie Fault Darul Imarah. Geological Agency of Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Indonesia (Badan Geologi Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral) noted this fault caused an earthquake measuring 6.5 on the Richter scale in 1936. At that time, nine people were killed and 20 others were seriously wounded.

In 1981, according to data from Aceh Disaster Management Agency (Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Aceh/BPBA), the movement of this fault caused the earthquake with the strength of 6 on the Richter scale. Several buildings were destroyed and financial buildings in Banda Aceh on fire. Then on 24 September 2006, the movement of this fault caused an earthquake 5.4 on the Richter scale.

Fault divides Banda Aceh with other small segments. Operations Control Center at the party BPBA, admitted not to socialize with problems related to this fault. New plan will be implemented next year socialization. Because of this, many people who do not understand about this fault. Many people who do not know the threat of fault can be a deadly monster in the city where they live.

In 2007, the Agency issued a Geological map of active faults in Indonesia. The institute is reported that there were a dozen plates on the ground that have been named by the foreign and domestic researchers. But there are dozens of other faults that have not been named.

The fault is a fracture along the blocks or plates on the earth's crust. Plate is at sea and on land with a depth of 600 kilometers, while the fault is located on land and sea with a depth of less than 20 kilometers.


Examples of fault. (Picture from: http://syawal88.wordpress.com/)
There are two types of fault, the active fault, the constant friction stores energy, and passive fault. This fault can be turned into an earthquake when the two sides rub. Characteristics, usually land along the fault point splitting or shift.

Fault is a row of deadly disasters when initiated by the earthquake. As happened in Yogyakarta, May 27, 2006, when an earthquake measuring 2.6 on the Richter scale. This earthquake causes fault Opak wake length of 40 kilometers from Bantul to Klaten, Central Java.

Fault Opak an accelerator of energy carrier from the earthquake epicenter in Parangtritis to the rupture (fault) in Klaten. As a result, thousands of buildings along and around this fault collapsed, killing 5.400 people.

Active faulting in mainland Sumatra, Semangko Fault named, which is located parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountains. Fault which divides Sumatra has 20 minor faults or segments in the vicinity. A number of fault line right through it, namely Pulau Weh, Banda Aceh, Padang Panjang, Muara Labuh, Liwa, Kota Agung, and Teluk Semangka.
Sumatra regional tectonic setting. (Picture from: http://geologi.iagi.or.id/)
Danny Hilman Natawidjaja an earthquake researcher from the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia/LIPI) noted a number of large earthquakes that have occurred and casualties, which in Bukit Tinggi and Padang Panjang in 1927, Liwa in 1933, and Lake Toba in 1920. "Compared to Java, Sumatra active fault movement is higher, namely 1-3 centimeters per year."

In 1994, Liwa earthquake struck the city and killed 200 people and destroying 6,000 buildings. Executive Head of the Lampung Regional Disaster Management Agency (Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah/BPBD) Budiharto explain the earthquake occurred on land and only about 30 kilometers from Liwa. Residents were unprepared for the disaster that comes on suddenly, so many lives.

Head of the Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika/BMKG) Kotabumi Chrismanto explain Lampung region crossed by Semangko Fault, Kemiling Fault, and Rajabasa Fault. Not to mention, Lampung skipped the meeting area of ​​the plate.

Not surprisingly, this area is frequently hit by earthquakes, especially from the Ujung Kulon, Muko-Muko and Bintuhan, Bengkulu. "I always pay attention to distance and depth. Usually earthquakes in that area has always felt in the region Krui and Liwa," he said.

To monitor the seismic activity, BMKG Lampung installed four earthquakes detector in Kotabumi, North Lampung regency; Liwa, West Lampung regency; Kota Agung, Tanggamus regency, and the University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung.

Digital detection tools all the time to send data to the vibration and movement of ground seismic monitoring stations in Kotabumi. "The problem is, it is very difficult to put it as a tool to be completely right in the rocks and quiet of the community activity," he said.

In West Sumatra, local authorities are currently focused on the threat of earthquakes (megathrust earthquake) under the Siberut Island. From the simulation results, within a period of 35 minutes after the quake, tsunami will hit Padang going as high as 9 meters and as far as 2 kilometers. "Unfortunately, the early warning system technology is still lagging behind," said Ade Edward, Coordinator of Disaster Operations Control Center of West Sumatera (Pusat Pengendalian Operasi Penanggulangan Bencana Sumatera Barat).
2010 Padang earthquake. (Picture from: http://kampungtki.com/)
BMKG has installed equipment to detect tsunamis. The problem, said Ade, there is no system to rapidly announce that information to the public.

According to Ade too, tsunami alarm can be fitted with loudspeakers every one kilometer along the coast, in the tower of the mosque, offices, schools, or utility poles. "In order for a tsunami warning information from the Operations Control Center and the evacuation order was heard by the people," he said. *** [UNTUNG WIDYANTO | ADI WARSIDI | FEBRIANTI | NUROCHMAH ARRAZIE | ANWAR SISWADI | KORAN TEMPO 3829]
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