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Saturday, October 25, 2014

The history of the car creation and development

Ford Model T in their factory on 
the eastern side of Woodward 
Avenue in Highland Park, just 
north of Detroit. (Picture from: 
 http://bit.ly/1DoupuL)
This time we will discuss about the history of the car creation and development. The first car is actually just the steam engine mounted on a cart that appears at the end of the 18th century. Steam engines is heavy which makes it a slow and difficult to control. After the steam engine improved, then began to be used by the public in the 19th century.

Although many people have tried to make a perfect car that will work well in a range of prices and markets, the historian argues that Karl Benz was the one who created the modern cars today. He uses the 2-stroke engine type that installed in the car named "Motorwagen". And he began to sell the vehicle in 1888.
Benz Patent Motor Car, 1886. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1iwna7p)
In North America, the first modern automobile made ​​by the Duryea Brothers in Springfield, Massachusetts. The Duryea Brothers car also won the first automobile race in 1895, to compete with the Benz cars. The race was in Chicago, Illinois, with racing along the 82 km. Duryea starts to produce their first commercial vehicle in 1896. In the same year they made ​​13 cars ​​by hand in Springfield, Massachusett.
This original copy of the 1893 Duryea, the first successful gasoline-powered car, will be part of the "History on the Move" car show at the Springfield Museums on Saturday, Sept. 25. The car, which actually runs, will be driven around the Quadrangle during the show. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1nvpggg)
Benz may have found the first modern automobile, and Duryea was the first commercial car that can be produced cheaply, but Henry Ford was the one who controlled the car market at that time. In 1910 he began making and selling the Ford Model T, which was a huge success. Many people who can afford to buy this car because of its affordability, not just the rich, because Ford uses a mass production system. This system allows him to make a lot of the Model T in a short time in a factory. People say that the Model T was the car that "put America on wheels". The Model T was the most popular cars of the time, because it's cheap but has a good quality and quantity that much so it's easy to buy.
1908 Ford Model T. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/ZKBXcn)
Since then, various types of cars have been created and produced, ranging from minivans to sports cars types. In 1950s the United States was the largest automobile manufacturers and users in the world. And fifty years later, in 2000s China had been the largest car manufacturer and the user. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAIMLER]
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Scientists have uncovered the origins of sex when examining the ancient fish fossils

The Australian team of scientists stated that they had found the origin of sex, or rather the sexual intercourse. Their results are published in the journal Nature, on Sunday, October 19th, 2014.

The origins of sex was found after scientists examined the fossil of Microbrachius dicki, a true primitive bony fish that has a length of 8 cm which were living in the Scotland ancient lake 385 million years ago.
The first animals to use this form of reproduction were the first jawed fish called Microbrachius. (Picture from: http://bbc.in/1yWVlls)
"We have found the starting point when the evolution of internal fertilization in the animal begins. This is a big step," said John Long, a scientist of Flinders University, Australia, who led the study.

Long and his team observed the M. dicki fossils. They found the L-shaped organ. In the further investigation then revealed that it was a genital organ. "The males have some sort of large bone clamp. It is a tool used to transfer sperm to the female," Long said as quoted by the BBC on Sunday.
Scientists researched fossils to show how the fish had intercourse. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1x7cch0)
Meanwhile, the female have small bone structure at the rear, which can lock the male organ. Scientists think, with a model of the genital organs, the fish may have sexual intercourse with a sideways position.

To be stable in their sexual intercourse position, M dicki assisted by their fins that have functioning resembling the arms. The organs were functioning like Velcro, that helping males position themselves, then its genital organ transferring the sperms.

While the M. dicki antecedents fish reproduce by external fertilization. Males and females to spread their eggs and sperms into the water. The fertilization takes place outside their body.

M. dicki dating back 385 million years ago and are believed to be the first species of internal fertilization. But Long did not elaborate on what prompted this species to do so.

Surprisingly, many of today's fish reproduce by external fertilization, not sexual intercourse. According to Long, the sexual intercourse of fish did not last long. There are the back evolution so the current fish back spreading the sperms and eggs into the water. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | BBC]
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Friday, October 24, 2014

Dubai Police's new rides!

Dubai Police is famous for the discipline and also have a super expensive official fleet, even the greatest and most expensive in the world, and making those who are fond of the automotive world being the envy.

Just imagine, the vehicle class of Nissan GT-R, Aston Martin, McLaren MP4-12C, Ford Mustang, Camaro, Ferrari, Bugatti Veyron to the Italian 'Raging Bull', Lamborghini Aventador participate wearing their green white uniforms.

As if not enough with those supercars, as reported by Autoevolution if Dubai Police have yet another new ride. It is the amphibian, Gibss Quadski, the unobstructed vehicle in land and sea.
Dubai Police adds the Gibbs Quadski into their marine fleet. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1zhvBRP)
Gibbs Quadski uses an inline 4-cylinder engine with a capacity of 1,300 cc and claimed to be capable of producing 140 hp of power and maximum torque of 118 Nm (87 lb ft) with a total weight of 605 kg. Gibbs modified the cooling system, and it now has dual-cooling: closed-loop for land operation and open-loop for wet environments. Make this fearless amphibious vehicle can pursuit the criminals who ran up to a maximum speed of 72 kph (45 mph) at sea surface.
Wow, would have increased the ability of Dubai Police with their new rides. (See another Dubai Police cars fleet) *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | AUTOEVOLUTION]
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The Moon's volcanoes may have erupted during the Dinosaurs age

The dinosaurs never became the ruler of the Earth, before the 'apocalypse' occurred 65 million years ago, when a giant meteor hit the escape from Earth's atmosphere and then trigger extinction. If they were able to find a telescope that time, the ancient creatures may be able to see the lava flows on the Moon surface.

Scientists initially suspected, volcanic activity on the Moon was dead about 1 billion years ago. However, the data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) of the United States Space Agency or NASA shows the lava flows on the surface of Earth satellites may be less than 100 million years ago.
Called Maskelyne, this feature is one of many newly discovered young volcanic rock deposits on the moon. These deposits are known as irregular mare patches and they are thought to be remnants of small basaltic eruptions. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1ziQ1dh)
"This finding is a kind of knowledge, literally, will make geologists rewrite their books that discuss about the Moon," said John Keller, the LRO project scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, as quoted from SPACE on Thursday, October 15, 2014.

When orbiting the Moon in 1971, Apollo 15 astronauts take pictures of volcanic deposits on the surface of the earth satellite, called Ina. The researchers suspect, Ina is still very young and may have formed in a local explosion of volcanic activity, even though most of the Moon volcanism occurred between 3.5 billion to 1 billion years ago.

But now, the photos of the LRO satellite - the orbiter which arrived at the Moon in 2009 - showed Ina is not alone. It had a lot of 'friends'. The scientists found 70 similar pattern in dark volcanic plains on the Moon which faces the Earth.

The unique rock deposit is also called irregular mare patches. Mare is a vast basalt plains and dark on the Moon, formed by the freezing of the magma flooding due to ancient volcanic eruption processes several billion years ago.

Their existence is characterized by rounded mounds that look smooth bulge mixed with coarse, rock formations with size is less than 500 meters. Too small to be seen with the naked eye from the Earth.

These findings indicate that the volcanic activity on the Moon spreads in a relatively not so long ago - at least in terms of geology. Three deposits estimated age of less than 100 million years. And Ina probably was less than 50 million years.

The scientists conducted a study with the techniques which associate the measurement of the Moon crater with the age of Moon dust samples that taken during the Apollo missions and the Soviet Union's Luna robotic missions. The findings are described in detail in the Nature Geoscience on October 12, 2014.

The deposit findings could also change the way of scientists think about the temperature of the inside or interior of the Moon.

"The presence and age of irregular mare patches informs that the coats of Moon must have been pretty hot, allowing the magma comes out in small-volume eruptions that created the feature," said Sarah Braden from Arizona State University who led the study. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE | SPACE.COM]
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Thursday, October 23, 2014

2 Unique motorcyccles from the past

After a long time I did not write about antique motorcycles, this time the writing subject is two German made motorcycles which is unique in terms of both design and technical and are made in the period before the second world war. Some weird and wonderful motorcycles that were decades ahead of their time and still leave a lasting impression today.

1. Megola
Megola motorcycles designed by three German Engineers named MEixner, GOckerell and LAndgraf in Munich and was made between 1920 to 1925. This bike uses a sv (side valve)-5 cylinder radial engine with 640 cc and 14 hp in the front wheel.

If you look at Megola machine that has great torque, so as to make this motorcycle accelerates from (almost) zero mph up to a maximum speed with only one gear. At the time of stopping, the motorcycle engine must be turned off.
Megola Motorcycle. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1nzYDqL)
And if you want to use it again, the rider must had to push to start the engine again. Imagine if you ride the bike on on a street that has a many traffic lights and vehicles, you must have been exhausted before reaching the destination.
Megola is a motorcycle with a front-wheel drive. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1nzYDqL)
Although somewhat unique and strange, this Megola had to succeeded in the race with riders like Toni Bauhofer, Josef Stelzer and Albin Tommasi. Megola has a top speed record of 140 kph. In its heyday is made up of 2,000 units, making Megola was one of the world's rarest antique motorcycles.

2. Killinger & Freund Motorrad
This bike is made by Killinger and Freund Motorcycle, which was founded around 1935 by five engineers from Munich, Germany. They are compelled to create, develop and refine a motorcycle-that inspired by Megola motorcycle.
Killinger & Freund Motorrad. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/ZIJ4Sm)
The five German engineers is heavily inspired by Megola motorcycle and then do the research over 3 years to create much more perfect motorcycle than Megola. And it turns out their results far beyond than they expected. They managed to create a motorcycle prototype that using a 2 stroke 3-cylinder engine that has a capacity of 600 cc with an aerodynamic design and a weight of about 135 kg which turned out to be much lighter than the 100 cc motorcycle at the time.
A 2 stroke 3-cylinder engine on the front wheel of Killinger & Freund Motorrad. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1nzZKGK)
From the design they successfully apply the streamlined principles on this bike, that almost never been applied and created for a motor vehicle at that time. While the technical side they also managed to combine in the form of 3-cylinder engine that is compact and lightweight at only 50 kg as a driving force on the front wheel without disturbing the driver and wheel performance!
Rear three quarter of Killinger & Freund Motorrad. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1nzZKGK)
This bike is not in mass production due to the outbreak of World War II. One motorcycle was discovered by the US-Army in the spring of 1945 at a German military station but it is not known if this was the original prototype or another Killinger und Freund Motorrad. The location of that captured vehicle is unknown.
One US-Army soldier posed on the Killinger&Freund Motorrad. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1zlACJk)
And lastly there is one image that really makes me sad, it seems one unit of Killinger & Freund that has disassembled its components. Because the source is not clear when and where is it located (I think it's the same unit with the Allies booty, see the broken line of paint on the front fenders).
Is this the end of the story of Killinger & Freund Motorrad? (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1ten2Ec)
Then... enjoy the images of one of the rarest motorcycle may be the only one in the world! No one knows if this bike is still there or has been living a story that can only be seen in the pictures only. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES]
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Revealing the contents of 'Magna Carta' which has charred 283 years ago

One of the original manuscript of the Magna Carta was finally able to read again, after 283 years in charred condition and damaged by fire in London, England.

Magna Carta - Latin means 'Great Charter' released in the UK on June 15, 1215 in the reign of King John. The rules limit the power of the British monarchy which previously was absolute. Now, the document is considered a first step toward constitutional law, not just a reduction in the power of the king or queen.
Using ultraviolet light, British Library scientists were able to photograph the text of the 1215 Burnt Magna Carta that is invisible to the human eye. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1vYQtcH)
There are four original copies of documents that were made at that time. One of them, the manuscript which kept in the British Library destroyed by burning in a fire incident in 1731.

Now, researchers are using a technique called multispectral imaging, managed to decipher the text of "Burnt Magna Carta" without touching or causing further damage to the valuable documents. This method allows scientists to conserve by taking images that virtually ignores the damage and show the parchment details and text on its surface.

"The document is badly damaged, we simply could not read it with the naked eye," said Christina Duffy, an imaging scientist at the British Library as quoted by LiveScience, on Monday, October 13, 2014. However, with these techniques, "very surprising because the text can be restored. "

The imaging is part of the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta ratification, when King John put the royal seal on the document, and vowed to stick with it. British Library save two copies of the Magna Carta, one of them in charred condition. The other two are stored in Lincoln Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral.

On February 3, 2015, four copies will be exhibited side by side in the British Library, London, for the first time in history. The public may enter the lottery for free tickets to see the exhibition, which is only available for the 1,215 winners.

The burnt Magna Carta was never studied for decades. In 1970, the charred document was stored in special frame with a specific security. British Library team has no intention of restoring the charred documents. The object will be preserved as it is.

"There are different ways to fix it. However, most of the wet process, certain areas should be wet. We did not want to make the charter so moist," said Duffy.

Thus, scientists are using multispectral imaging, which essentially photographing the burned parchment with a series of LED light, which covers the spectrum of ultraviolet to infrared - beyond the range of human vision.

"Although some of the images produced basically the same, but each one giving different information," said Duffy further.

That way, the text is invisible to the naked eye suddenly appeared. Essentially identical to the text of three other copies which signed by the King of England in 1215. The team is still processing the multispectral image and will do the same process in other old documents related to the Magna Carta. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Yamaha with a Scrambler taste

Display with a blast of fresh dark green glitter paint, this cool motorcycle modification using basic 1982 Yamaha Virago XV920, which is almost all over its body been recast by Greg Hageman of Doc’s Chops.
Scrambler taste on the Yamaha Virago XV920 by Greg Hageman of Doc’s Chops. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1rmxe6P)
The first was the engine overhaul. To give a performance not to be outdone by the latest motorcycle, the modifier increases its capacity to 1,000 cc. Its conventional fuels supplier or carburetor rely on the new Mikuni VM34.
Right side view of the modification of Yamaha Virago XV920. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1rmxe6P)
Furthermore, the exhaust gas pipelines or the exhaust system is backed by a medium-sized pipe with the Laser Duo-Tech cone silincer. The front of the motorcycle adopting an innate part of Yamaha XV1000 TR1, the front spiral suspension and also its fork snatch part of the Yamaha XS650.
The special tank design with a blast of fresh dark green glitter paint. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1rmxe6P)
It shown with enduro motorcycle style that uses the size of the front wheel larger than the rear wheel, this Yamaha scrambler was also adopting this style. Its front wheel was uses 18-inch and 17-inch for rear wheel, not to forget also the 'jagged' tires motive also installed nicely.
Rear three quarter of the modification of Yamaha Virago XV920. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1rmxe6P)
To reinforce the scrambler impression, the tank design, handlebar to seat remade with forms and themes a little 'aggressive' aka scrambler impressive figure. As a sweetener, a blast of dark green glitter paint to complement the classical character. Indeed, some of the modifiers are often used glitter effect to display the classic value and exclusivity of their motorcycles. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | BIKEEXIF]
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